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Independent Units

Independent Redress Mechanism

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Introduction Introduction

The Independent Redress Mechanism (IRM) responds to complaints by people who feel they have been adversely affected by GCF projects or programmes failing to implement GCF operational policies and procedures. This includes allegations of a failure to follow adequate environmental and social safeguards.

The IRM can also accept requests by developing country National Designated Authorities, or focal points, for the GCF Board to reconsider funding proposals which the GCF has rejected.

The IRM also has an advisory function. It can suggest changes to existing operational policies and procedures to the GCF Board, based on lessons learned from cases.

Also, its mandate includes monitoring whether the decisions taken by the GCF Board on the IRM’s recommendations have been implemented. The IRM works collaboratively with other grievance redress and accountability mechanisms of Accredited Entities, which channel GCF resources to developing countries.

The IRM is independent of the GCF Secretariat, and reports directly to the GCF Board, which oversees the Fund’s investments and management.

The IRM is a member of the Independent Accountability Network (IAMnet).
This is a network of dedicated practitioners who exchange ideas and help build institutional capacity in accountability and compliance as part of sound corporate governance. More details about IAMnet are available here.

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Call for Public Comments

The Independent Redress Mechanism has developed draft Procedures and Guidelines and is inviting individuals and organisations to submit comments.

Call for Public Comments: Draft Procedures and Guidelines of the Independent Redress Mechanism

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Annual Reports

In a year of firsts, the IRM has released its 2017 Annual Report. The Report provides an overview of the IRM, and highlights the work done in 2017 to lay the foundation for the mechanism.

2017 IRM Annual Report: Laying the Foundation

Making complaints and requests Making complaints and requests

Making complaints and requests

How to file a complaint
Cases can be filed with the IRM by two or more people who believe they have been directly affected by adverse impacts through the failure of a project or programme funded by GCF to implement GCF’s operational policies and procedures, including environmental and social safeguards.

Other kinds of complaints, such as allegations of corruption and irregular procurement, are handled by separate independent units associated with GCF, including the Independent Integrity Unit (IIU).

While no special form is required to lodge a complaint, it is advisable to include the following information.

  • Details of affected people: Name, title, address and contact information
  • Representative/s: If a representative of affected people contacts the IRM, they should provide
    • the representative/s name, title, address and contact details;
    • names of the affected people on whose behalf they are acting;
    • signed evidence of authority to represent affected people.
  • Confidentiality of identity: Complainants should state whether they want to keep their identities confidential. Complainants' identities will be kept confidential from all parties other than the IRM, unless they agree to disclose their identities. Authorized representatives' identities will be disclosed, unless they are complainants themselves.
  • GCF funded project or programme: Provide a brief description including name, location and, if known, the GCF reference number of the relevant project or programme.  
  • Adverse Impacts: Describe, in as much detail as possible, how the GCF-funded project or programme has adversely affected the complainants.
  • Policy or Procedure not followed: State, if possible, whether the adverse impacts have been caused by a failure to implement a GCF policy or procedure.  If possible, identify the relevant policy or procedure.
  • Relief or remedy: State what the complainants expect as relief, redress or remedy from the GCF.

Requests for reconsideration of GCF Board decision
NDAs or focal points can access the IRM to request reconsideration of a GCF Board decision denying funding for a project or programme in that developing country. Reconsideration requests must show that the denial of funding was based on a non-compliance by the Fund with policies, programme priorities and eligibility criteria of the Fund.  A request for reconsideration should be made within 60 calendar days from when the GCF Secretariat informs the NDA or focal point about the Board decision.  The 60 day period starts on the day the Secretariat sends the notification of the decision to the NDA or focal point.  The procedure for requests is set out in the Interim Procedures and Guidelines for Reconsideration of Funding Decisions (B.13/24 para (a) and Annex IV) which can be found below.

IRM cases IRM cases

IRM Cases

Requests for Reconsideration
Case #
Project #
Date of receipt
18/R001 - Argentina National Designated Authority of Argentina FP057 - Climate Action for Rural Development: Community-based Adaptation and Mitigation in Argentina Withdrawn 26 Jan 2018

Complaints and Grievances
Case #
Project #
Date of receipt
17/C001 - Bangladesh Local residents of Satkhira with the support of Transparency International Bangladesh FP004 - Climate-Resilient Infrastructure Mainstreaming in Bangladesh Ineligible 23 Oct 2017

Head of unit Head of unit


de Silva,
Head of unit

Dr Lalanath de Silva is the Head of GCF’s Independent Redress Mechanism. Dr de Silva has extensive experience in legal affairs, with more than 30 years of service as a practicing lawyer. In Sri Lanka, he supported the Ministry of Environment as a legal consultant, and was a member of his country’s Law Commission. Lalanath previously worked at the Environmental Claims Unit of the UN Compensation Commission in Geneva, and served as Director of the Environmental Democracy Practice at the World Resources Institute (WRI) in Washington DC. As a member of the Compliance Review Panel of the Asian Development Bank (ADB), he led the review of multiple compliance cases. Lalanath has a PhD from the University of Sydney, a Master of Laws from the University of Washington, and graduated from the Sri Lanka Law College as an Attorney-at-Law.

Compliance and Dispute Resolution Specialist

An Ecuadorian and Spanish national, Susana holds a Master’s degree from Johns Hopkins School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS) and a Bachelor’s in Political Science from Davidson College, NC, USA. Prior to joining the IRM, Susana worked at Compliance Advisor Ombudsman (CAO) – the independent accountability mechanism for the World Bank’s private sector lending arms, IFC and MIGA. While at CAO, she supported the growth and development of the accountability mechanism, leading efforts related to case management, dispute resolution processes, and lessons learned. She also previously worked for UNDP in Ecuador. Susana is an accredited mediator and her professional interests include sustainable development and African studies.

Team Assistant

Arian hails from the Philippines and holds a Bachelor’s degree in Social Work from Centro Escolar University Manila. She is pursuing a Master’s Degree in Development Policy at the Korea Development Institute School of Public Policy and Management, focusing on Sustainable and International Development. Prior to working at GCF, Arian spent 6 years working as a social welfare officer in a local government unit in Manila. She was a project manager in local assisted social protection programmes that focused on poverty reduction, women empowerment and localizing the Millennium Development Goals. She has a professional background in social welfare, community development and local governance.

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Dr Asanga Gunawansa has a Ph.D. in law from the National University of Singapore (NUS) and a Master of Law (LLM) from University of Warwick. He is an Attorney-at-Law of the Supreme Court of Sri Lanka with over 24 years of professional experience. He is an International Arbitrator, a visiting academic/researcher with NUS, University of Moratuwa and Sri Lanka Law College. He is a Director of the Sri Lanka International Arbitration Centre, an Honorary Consultant to the Ministry of Justice of Sri Lanka, and an Executive Member of the Asia Pacific Centre for Environmental Law. In the past he had worked for the Asian Development Bank as a Consultant, a Legal Officer for the United Nations Compensation Commission and the United National Relief and Works Agency, and as a State Counsel at the Department of the Attorney General of Sri Lanka.


Halina Ward is a lawyer with 25 years of applied policy research, partnership-building, and advisory experience in the fields of sustainable development, responsible business, public participation, and governance of foreign direct investment. A trained mediator and facilitator, she has worked in law firms, consultancies and a technology innovation agency as well as in senior roles with non-governmental organisations including the Royal Institute of International Affairs and the International Institute for Environment and Development. She is currently an independent analyst and advisor, and served as a Project Complaint Mechanism Expert with the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development’s Project Complaint Mechanism from 2015-2018. She speaks English, Russian, Spanish and Polish and holds an Bachelor of Laws (LLB) and an Master of Laws (LLM) (Law and Development) from the University of London.

Contact Contact


Independent Redress Mechanism
Green Climate Fund
Songdo Business District
175 Art center-daero
Yeonsu-gu, Incheon 22004
Republic of Korea
+82.32.458.6157 (Korea Standard Time)